Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterial infestation which colonises in the stomach. It is able to stick to the stomach cells and attacks the lining that protects the stomach. H. pylori survives the acidic conditions of the stomach by making an enzyme called urease, which breaks down urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia, thereby neutralising the stomach acid. The less acidic gastric environment means that pathogens are not killed off as effectively and this can lead to further issues in the stomach, intestines and therefore other parts of the body.
H. pylori also stimulates histamine producing cells and increases the relevant enzyme, thereby increasing histamine production. This increases inflammation, primarily in the stomach and gut lining and can cause a wide range of symptoms around the body, such as those related to histamine intolerance.
H. pylori uses the ammonium (ammonia is converted to ammonium) to survive the gastric acid and thrive in the stomach.